Cosmic Education: An Introduction

As an elementary teacher, one of the things I’m most excited to implement is Cosmic Education. At the opening Philosophy class at my training center, we were lucky to have Jennifer Morgan speak and tell us her version of the First Great Lesson, the story which begins the journey through Cosmic Education. For those unfamiliar, Morgan is the author of¬†Born with a Bang, From Lava to Life,¬†and¬†Mammals Who Morph,¬†three books many Montessorians consider to be companions to the first three of the five Great Lessons.

But what are the Great Lessons? And how do they relate to Cosmic Education?

To give a simple answer to the first question, the Great Lessons are stories. In fact, that’s how we name them:

  1. The Story of the Universe
  2. The Story of Life
  3. The Story of Humans
  4. The Story of Language (sometimes this is told as two stories–the story of oral language [1] and the story of written language [2])
  5. The Story of Numbers

These five stories make up the heart of Montessori Elementary education. Each story acts as the starting point for many of the curriculum areas in the classroom:

  • The Story of the Universe: Earth Science, Physical Geography, Astronomy, and Physical Science (the study of the laws of the universe)
  • The Story of Life: 6 Kingdoms, Animal Phyla, Botany, Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Mammals
  • The Story of Humans: Early Humans, Ancient Civilizations, Fundamental Needs of Humans, all of human history
  • The Story of Language: History, Parts of Speech, names, the alphabet, etymology, writing
  • The Story of Numbers:¬†Counting, Basic Operations, units of measurement, geometry

An Example Demonstration of the History of Numbers

This is just a sampling of where the Great Lessons might take you. In a larger sense, the function of the Lessons is to Strike the Imagination of the children, to inspire wonder for the world around them. Once that wonder has been sparked, their own natural interest drives them to learn more about the world around them. And our job as teachers is to give them the tools they need to fulfill their interest.

That’s why research is such an integral part of elementary education. Our students have questions and we empower them by giving them practice in the skills they’ll need to answer the questions on their own. There’s a famous quote about education that I find particularly fits the role of the Great Lessons:

With each Great Lesson, we kindle the fire of the children’s imagination. Through the use of storytelling and impressionistic charts, we inspire the students to ask questions; then we empower them with the ability to answer those questions.

Materials for Follow Up Work for the Story of Humans

The Lessons also encourage students to look at the interconnectivity of the universe. And, in exploring the achievements of past humans, students begin to formulate ideas of how they, in turn, might contribute.

Another Example Demonstration of the Story of Numbers

This is, in essence, the answer to the second question: What role do the Great Lessons play in Cosmic Education? While Cosmic Education and the Great Lessons are often lumped together, they are part of a larger pedagogy developed by Dr. Montessori toward the end of her life.

My Impressionistic Charts for the Story of the Universe

Dr. Montessori’s son–and many other distinguished Montessorians–have continued to expand and evolve the concept since her death in 1952.

If you are interested in exploring Cosmic Education a little more, I suggest the following books and articles:


Room 2 (Renee’s) Classroom Wishlist 2017

It’s the end of the year again! With that in mind, I asked the teachers at MSO to give me their wish lists to feature here on the blog. Today I’m showing you Renee’s wish list. It’s short and sweet–she’s a teacher who knows what she wants!

 ~~All wishlist items are linked through the images~~

Insta-Learn by Step Math Board

Renee would like the Math Step Board from Insta-Learn, pictured above. Since the Step Boards come in three different options (blank, imprinted with dots, and imprinted with numbers), the numbers are purchased separately:

Insta-Learn Math Numbers 0-25

And for use with the Step Board are problem strips of all shapes and sizes. They focus on counting, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, place value, money and time math and number sequencing.

Renee would like an assortment of these!

Tree of Life Mat from Waseca

What Montessori teacher doesn’t love Waseca?

Tree of Life

The Tree of Life from Waseca is a gorgeous, tangible way for students to explore the five kingdoms of living things. It’s easy to see how all life is connected with this work–and easy to appreciate, too!

The Montessori Services Gift Certificate speaks for itself! I think most of us would love a blank check from this wonderful Montessori supplier.

Gift Card from Montessori123

Montessori123 is another Montessori supplier! They create math, reading, physical and cultural geography material made with realistic images, a rarity¬†among elementary material-makers. It would be difficult to choose from among the materials available from this site. I have the Math Word Problem Cards from Montessori123 in my classroom–check out my review!


SumBlox was one of the exhibitors at the AMS Conference this year. As I understand it, the blocks have infinite use. The blocks are used in conjunction with games and activities in order to teach math concepts.


Peace Corner Wish List

This wish list is quite specific. Most Montessori classrooms have Peace Tables or Peace Corners and mine is one that’s still in development. I’ve been slowly adding pieces to it, like the Buddha Board I finally splurged on, and the Zen rock garden I made myself. We keep our World Wildlife Animals in the Peace Corner, along with the yoga cards and Thich Nhat Hanh’s A Handful of Quiet: Happiness in Four Pebbles¬†and Eline Snel’s¬†Sitting Still Like a Frog.

Yet, I’m always on the search for those things that make a Peace Corner special. I want it to be, in Thich Nhat Hanh’s words, an Embassy of the Kingdom of Peace. And as such, it needs as many resources as it can get. To that end, I keep on looking. Recently, I found the following chart on the Pinterest board of Montessori educator Victoria deLilla:

Montessori Peace ~ Creating A Culture of Peace (click on the image to visit the Pinterest Board)

I have been using this chart to think about the areas to enhance my Peace Corner. Here’s what I’ve found:

The Children’s Peace Dance Flag from the Peace Company is my favorite among the many Peace Flag options out there. I like that it¬†has images of children from around the world, and includes an image of the Earth.

I spotted these wooden two-handed labyrinths on someone else’s Peace Table and immediately scoured the internet to source them out. Unfortunately, they’re prohibitively expensive, even in the less attractive plastic versions (not pictured here). However, I love the idea of two children doing a labyrinth together, or connecting the right and left brains by trying to trace them with both hands. I think my students would get a kick out it too.

These cards combine a number of different practices for calming the mind. I already have yoga cards on my shelf:

Room 8 Yogis

But this card deck encourages other mindful practices, such as breathing, Brain Gym activities, and emotional intelligence.

Sand Pendulum from Amazon

Pendulums are fascinating in the way they seem to move without movement. By their very existence, they encourage stillness, and stillness encourages focus. I would love to have a tabletop pendulum like this in the classroom. My students would have to fight me for a spot in front of it!

I spotted this sweet little gem¬†at a used book store and I regret that I didn’t snap it up. Thinking back on it, this book, along with a collection of heart stones would be a lovely addition to my Peace Corner.

The final item I’d like is small, CD-playing boombox so that students can listen to the guided meditations in Sitting Still Like a Frog¬†or audiobooks like¬†Zen Shorts, books with a mindful bent.

I hope you’ve enjoyed this foray into my developing Peace Corner. I’d like to close with a quote from Thich Nhat Hanh’s¬†Peace Is Every Step:

“We have a room for everything–eating sleeping, watching TV–but we have no room for mindfulness. I recommend that we set up a small room in our homes and call it a ‘breathing room,’ where we can be alone and practice just breathing and smiling, at least in difficult moments. That little room should be regarded as an Embassy of the Kingdom of Peace. It should be respected, and not violated by anger, shouting, or things like that…she is safe within the grounds of the Embassy.”

Peace Is Every Step by Thich Nhat Hanh, p. 45


Flexible Seating: Students Get Comfy While They Work

I’ve been exploring “flexible seating” options lately, which I’ve learned is not a phrase meaning my students get to move from seat to seat like a teacher’s nightmare of work-time somehow devolving into an uncontrollable game of musical chairs. I have precisely three options for flexible “seating” in my classroom at the moment and they are:

  • a carpet
  • a dish chair¬†from Target
  • one “Wiggle Seat“, a two-sided inflatable seat cushion that the students either love or hate

There are many options for students who either have difficulty working at a desk or just prefer to have more choices. As much as possible, I allow my students to work at the carpet, outside, in our dish chair or hanging upside down so long as it helps them concentrate. In certain cases, work requires certain posture. Handwriting, for example, is always done at a desk, as posture and the position of the arm and the hand are part of the work of the child.

This post is a roundup of some of the flexible seating options I’d like to be able to offer in my classroom, and why they’re attractive to me. You could say it’s a wishlist of sorts, but it’s more my findings after researching the various options online, seeing what’s offered in other Montessori classrooms, and my own personal experiences as a student. Please share any feedback!

Wiggle Seat Inflatable Sensory Chair Cushion for Kids in Red by Sensory Solutions

Along with my classroom, I inherited one Wiggle Seat. Through the years, it’s served me well. I’ve gone through a number of systems for having my students share it, but I’m ready to add to my collection. The funny thing about the Wiggle Seat is how some students ADORE it and some CANNOT STAND it, and it’s never the students I expect. It’s also customizable–you can inflate or deflate it to the right amount of air and put the bumpy or “less bumpy” side up.

Kids Stay-N-Play Balance Ball in Grey by Gaiam

I know there are classrooms with ordinary balance balls in them–my classroom will never be one of them. This five-footed adaptation is the perfect compromise. It’s bouncy, but it doesn’t roll around like its footless cousin. I imagine there’d be stiff competition over this beauty.

17 Inch Glow Stool in Red by Regency

You know those kids who lean back in their chairs no matter how many times you tell them not to? This stool is for them. It gives them 360 degree tipping power without you worrying about their heads meeting solid ground. Go ahead, Bobby. Tip away.

Back Jack Floor Chair in Standard Size in Black

I love Back Jacks. They’re absolutely perfect for floor work, especially if you need to sit for a long time. I’m someone who needs the support for their back. I personally hate stools and always sit against the wall when I teach at the carpet. Plus, having a few of them would be a great way to instantly form a small group for a lesson.

And to go with those Back Jacks? These red lap desks:

Lap Tray in Red by Romanoff

Last up is these plastic rockers:

Plastic Scoop Rocker (Pack of 6) by Kid’s Kraft

As soon as I saw these rockers, I immediately pictured my students using them. Unfortunately, it appears that my older students wouldn’t fit them, so I’m looking for a larger alternative (hopefully not made of plastic). But can’t you just picture a slew of students happily rocking away in them? Yeah, me too.

The opportunities don’t end there. You can include tall desks for students who prefer to stand while they work, bean bag chairs for those who want to be completely enveloped, laundry baskets and¬†other plastic tubs for “book boats” or my personal favorite, Kinesthetic Pedal Desks. Yes, that’s right. Your students can pedal while they work.

In the meantime, please make sure you stop by Room 6. Lizzy’s been hard at work making her room fit the Flexible Seating model. She has incorporated some of the ideas you see here, plus some ideas of her own!

Did You Know? This Week is International Dark Sky Week!

Kicking off on Earth Day, International Dark Sky Week is a celebration of our night skies, a call to action about light pollution¬†and an event started by a high school student. I’ve only just heard about International Dark Sky Week for the first time, but it’s been going on since 2003 and is a part of Global Astronomy Month. Here are some ways you can celebrate:

  1. Practice turning off lights you don’t use in your house. If your children are old enough, turn all of them off! Have a night with no lights. Use only flashlights or candles.
  2. Go stargazing. There are excellent places to stargaze in the Ojai Valley, even if you don’t have a telescope. The International Dark Sky Association (IDA) reports that millions of children across the globe will never see the Milky Way from their own homes–don’t let your child be one of them!
  3. Visit one of IDA’s local “Dark Sky Places.” Use their finder to help you locate one or, if you live here, you might know¬†a special place where the stars are especially bright.
  4. Check out IDA’s post on Enjoying Dark Skies with Kids.

International Dark Sky Resources Post Card (Back)

Most of all, if you see a great Night Sky, tell someone about it! That way they can share the experience with you. I hope I get a chance to hear some tales this week.

Teaching Multiculturalism Through Holidays

Like many people, I adore a good holiday. The traditions engender excitement within me, and most often at the heart of the celebration is a meaning I can connect with. Within the classroom, and as a teacher, I enjoy using them to teach about different cultures. Most children in the United States are familiar with the same set of holidays: Christmas, Thanksgiving, Easter, Veteran’s Day¬†and, to a lesser extent, Hanukkah and Kwanzaa. Because I like to use the holidays to expand the students’ worldview, I prefer giving them new information about familiar holidays or introducing them to entirely new ones.

Here are a couple of ways this might work:

  1. We might acknowledge Easter by discussing the many ways the holiday is celebrated around the
    world. For example, exploring the Ukrainian tradition of Pysanky Easter eggs and then attempting them on our own.
  2. Inviting students to share their Thanksgiving traditions. Do they eat turkey, ham, tofurkey or something else? I always like to tell the story of the college friend that invited me to her house for the holiday. We were served all the usual Thanksgiving Day foods plus pasta. Needless to day, her family was Italian. (Side note: I prefer to use Thanksgiving as an opportunity for the students to practice Gratitude, rather than an opportunity to focus on turkeys, pilgrims and Native Americans. We write thank you cards, have a Gratitude council and make lists of things we are thankful for.)
  3. Passover is often around the same time of year as Easter, and it is not as well-known a Jewish holiday as Hanukkah. It has its own story and traditions and is a lively celebration all its own, which are both historically and philosophically fun to learn about. You might assemble a Sedar plate to share with the class and have the children take turns hiding the afikomen for the class to find. On the other hand, the experience might be as simple as bringing matzo to share with the class. I am always amazed at how few students have tried it!
  4. Although the Western world celebrates the New Year every January first, many cultures celebrate at different times. We can learn a lot about a culture by comparing and contrasting our western New Year with any of the following: Lunar New Year, Nowruz (Iranian/Persian New Year), Rosh Hashanah (the Jewish New Year), or Diwali (the Indian New Year). And there are more where those came from!

I’ve come to think of holidays as a chance to teach mini multicultural units, and to that end, I’ve developed a kind of formula to make it easier to include them in my curriculum without too much disruption to any¬†other units we’re working on. My formula tries to hit as many¬†subject areas as possible while still maintaining the spirit of the celebration. Let me break it down for you:

  1. Books to read: Every holiday should come with a little light reading. Unfortunately, some holidays are better represented in the literary world than others. I defer to the internet whenever I’m on the hunt for titles. Someone, somewhere on Pinterest has probably done a roundup of books from even the rarest holidays. It’s inevitable. I’m still building my personal multicultural holiday library, so I generally turn to the¬†public library when I need titles for the classroom. I’ve also been known to read ebooks from the Epic app on my iPad, though it’s not my favorite method. If neither of those sources pan out, try looking on one of the following educational websites online, each of which has printable books that you can easily assemble for your students:
  2. Handwriting Page: Depending on the make-up of my class, this may be in print or cursive or involve transferring some holiday-related vocabulary from print to cursive. Earlier this year, I purchased Fonts for Teachers to make it easy for me to make handwriting pages. I highly recommend this product for teachers making their own handwriting/cursive work. This is also a great way to introduce or reinforce new vocabulary.
  3. Math:¬†I try to make the math as fun as possible. As an example, take¬†Holi, the Indian Festival of Colors. There are a couple of options I could use for math, but I lean¬†towards¬†the Indian Kolam, which offers both a lesson in¬†geometry/symmetry and culture. Other options would have been working with the rupees and paise, India’s national currency, Ayrabhata’s Method¬†(a method of solving an equation backwards), or¬†reading Demi’s¬†One Grain of Rice and discussing how exponential growth works.
  4. Writing:¬†Earlier this year, when the class celebrated Lunar New Year, we actually completed a Venn Diagram comparing the holiday to the American/Western New Year. Students then took that information and turned it into paragraph form. This is one way to incorporate writing. You can also write poetry. Celebrating St. Patrick’s Day? Teach your students how to write a limerick! Have them make little informative books about the holiday. My students love making books. They can make lists, write songs, poems, stories, cartoons, plays or obituaries for the dead (see D√≠a de los Muertos). The sky’s the limit!
  5. Word Search:¬†My students happen to adore word searches, and I think they’re a pretty good way to reinforce vocabulary associated with whatever holiday we’re investigating at the moment. They’re great for early finishers, too. I encourage you to have something like this in your back pocket, whatever works for your class, whether it’s coloring pages, dot-to-dot pictures or word scrambles. Each cultural unit needs a little something extra (sometimes two somethings) to keep those students in need of¬†constant stimulation busy.
  6. Geography:¬†I love including map work with my cultural units because it gives the students a chance to become aware of¬†things they haven’t before. When we mapped the countries that celebrate Lunar New Year, students noticed that Macau and Hong Kong were singled out on our map of China. This opened up discussion of English and Portuguese colonization–not the focus of our unit, but an important piece of history all the same.
  7. A Craft:¬†The craft, of course, is the highlight of the day, and the thing that the students are the most eager to do. While I have been tempted to make the entire day crafts, two things hold me back. For one, an entire day of crafts can be exhausting. And two, good crafts take a lot of time to prepare. I want my multicultural holiday days to be sustainable (as in an experience¬†I’m willing to repeat), so one craft it is. Here are two examples of crafts I’ve done. Chinese Lanterns for Lunar New Year: and a Mardi Gras Parade complete with miniature floats and “It’s a Grand Ole’ Flag” playing in the background. That was certainly a highlight of this year.

If this post hasn’t inspired you enough and you’re still interested, please do check out Kid World Citizen for some wonderful ideas about learning about different cultures all over the planet. Then come back and share how you’re expanding your students’ worldview one holiday at a time!

Classroom Fundraiser! World Wildlife Fund

Recently my entire class organized a bake sale to raise money to adopt a few¬†animals from the World Wildlife Fund. This was an activity I envisioned¬†as both a Community Service and a Practical Life project. I’ve been trying to figure out how to make Community Service part of my curriculum and this is definitely one of the ways I will be doing it in the future.

Initially, I approached the class with a number of charitable organizations they might want to support:

  • UNICEF–United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, which works with the¬†UN to defend the rights of children around the globe.
  • The Nature Conservancy–I suggested adopting an acre in the Northern Sierras or the Gulf Coast or possibly a Coral Reef.¬†This was my first choice, since we’re currently studying biomes and it would have complimented that unit perfectly!
  • Adopt a Classroom–I came up with this idea because I thought it couldn’t hurt to get my students thinking about others in their own country their own age needing help. Their experience of the United States is one of privilege. It’s important for them to know that’s not the case for everyone.
  • World Wildlife Fund–Our donation would allow us to¬†symbolically adopt an endangered animal.

We did a round of voting, with me assuring the class we could always support more than one organization if the enthusiasm was there. Not to mention the fact that it might be an organization they would like to support on their own. However, what with my class being animal-mad, I knew the World Wildlife Fund would sweep away all the competition. I offered it anyway. Since this was my first time attempting such an activity, their enthusiasm was key. The World Wildlife Fund won, hands down, with UNICEF being the closest runner-up.

With our charity chosen, the next step was to brainstorm fundraising ideas:

Ideas ran the gamut from penny jars to, as you can see, a charitable singing performance. Eventually, having eliminated a car wash (the drought) and selling chicks (we don’t actually have any to sell), we winnowed the list down to a bake sale. It was time for the planning to begin!

I gave the students a list of details that they’d be responsible for:

  • choosing a date and time
  • creating a sign up sheet for the bake sale
  • getting the word out (advertising the event)
  • creating a price list for the baked goods
  • choosing which animals to adopt

As much as possible, I wanted the students to participate in the planning and running of the bake sale, so that it was as much a¬†Community Service project as it was a Practical Life one. In order to chose the animals the class wanted to adopt, I printed the World Wildlife Fund’s list of available animals. The students perused the list and made top three selections in the first round of voting. I decided not to tell them that some adoptions came with stuffed animals and some didn’t, since I didn’t want that to factor into their decision-making process. We did, however, discuss the fact that the WWF categorizes the¬†animals¬†in three ways:

  • Extinct, Extinct in the Wild or Critically Endangered
  • Endangered, Vulnerable
  • Near Threatened, Least Concern

This was important to some of the students, but as you can imagine, the irresistible allure of the Snowy Owl (thank you, J.K. Rowling) overrode everything else. After our first round of voting, I created a shortlist and we voted again. Not knowing how much money we would make (and wanting the class to have a goal), I narrowed our shortlist to the top three:

If we raised $100, we would adopt the Red Panda…

If we raised $200, we would adopt the Red Panda and the Tiger…

And if we raised $300, we would adopt the Red Panda, the Tiger and the Snow Leopard.

Goals. Gotta have ’em.

There were, of course, disappointments but I encouraged students to think about sponsoring an¬†animal on their own if one they really wanted didn’t get chosen. They can do it for as little as $25.00. (Stuffed animal adoptions are more, but they didn’t know this at the time and I didn’t tell them.)

Planning went on apace. Signs were made for each of the classrooms around the school, and one large one for the bake sale table:

I paired the students up and asked them to create short speeches to inform the younger classrooms about the bake sale. They had to include the who, what, where, when and why and take any questions the students had. I was reliably informed that the questions were mostly animal-related.

On the day of our bake sale, the students decided they wanted to make one those arrow signs they could spin and twirl to attract the attention of parents in the parking lot. My lovely assistant Hannah helped them with the dangerous mat cutting and they created the arrow sign of their dreams.

Finally, the time to host the bake sale had arrived!

As you can see, we sold more than baked goods! Some students brought tangerines from the orchard behind their house. They also brought a scale so they could sell the tangerines by the pound. (I just about died with pleasure!) Another student brought her family’s honey. Students took turns being responsible for handing out baked goods, dispensing hot chocolate, recruiting parents from the parking lot, taking money and making change. As much as possible, I stood¬†back and let them run the show. Of course, they amazed me.

In the end, the class raised enough money to adopt two animals: A red panda named Molly and a tiger named Hunter. Their names were democratically chosen by the students. Look at their proud little faces:

All in all, I really can’t wait for our next student-planned fundraiser!